Saturday, November 30, 2013


The Meitei script:

 Meetei Mayek, is an abugida that was used for the Meitei language (Manipuri), one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur, until the eighteenth century, when it was replaced by the Bengali script. A few manuscripts survive. In the twentieth century, the script experienced a resurgence.

Since the Meitei language does not have voiced consonants, there are only fifteen consonant letters used for native words, plus three letters for pure vowels. Nine additional consonant letters inherited from the Indic languages are available for borrowings. There are seven vowel diacritics and a final consonant (/ŋ/) diacritic.

One of the unique feature of this script is the use of body parts in naming the letters. Every letter is named after a human body part in the Meitei language. For example, the first letter "kok" means "head"; the second letter "sam" means "hair"; the third letter "lai" means "forehead", and so on.

 Months in Meitei Myek:

 Weeks in Meitei Mayek:

Meetei Mayek
Meithei manuscript, a Indian language.jpg
LanguagesMeitei language
ISO 15924Mtei, 337
Unicode aliasMeetei Mayek
Unicode rangeU+ABC0..U+ABFF



The Sangai is an endemic, rare and endangered Brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur, India. Its common English name is Manipur Brow-antlered Deer and the scientific name, Rucervus eldii eldii [1] McClelland. It lives in the marshy wetland in Keibul Lamjao about 45 km from Imphal.

 Its habitat is located in the southern parts of the Loktak Lake, which is the largest freshwater lake in Eastern India. It is also one of the seven Ramsar sites of international importance. The habitat of the Sangai is now protected as the Keibul Lamjao National Park. Sangai is also the state animal of Manipur.

Distribution and habitat:

The brow-antlered deer or the dancing deer is found in its natural habitat only at Keibul Lamjao National Park over the floating biomass locally called "phumdi" in the South Eastern part of Loktak Lake. It is located between 24°27’ N and 24°31’ N latitude and 93°53’ E and 93°55’ E longitudes. The park covers an area of 40 km². and the home range of the deer in the park is confined to 15–20 km².

Phumdi is the most important and unique part of the habitat. It is the floating mass of entangled vegetation formed by the accumulation of organic debris and biomass with soil. Its thickness varies from few centimeter to two meters. The humus of phumdi is black in color and very spongy with large number of pores. It floats with 4/5 part under water.

The number of deer listed in the Red data book was only 14 in 1975. Subsequent after the declaration of the area as National park and with strict conservation measures taken up by the Forest Department, the fear of its extinction has been greatly reduced.

Sangai in Manipur society:

Culturally, the Sangai finds itself imbedded deep into the legends and folklore of the Manipuris. Based on a popular folk legend, the Sangai is interpreted as the binding soul between humans and the nature. The slaying of the Sangai, an unpardonable sin, is conceived as the rude breaking up of the cordial relationship between humans and the nature. When humans love and respect the Sangai, it is respecting nature. In the Sangai, therefore, humans find a way of expressing their love for the nature. Socially, the Sangai is the symbol of a prized possession of the State.

It is believed that the name Sangai (Sa, animal and ngai, in awaiting) was coined from its peculiar posture and behaviour while running. By nature, the deer, particularly the males, even when running for its life stops occasionally and looks back as if he is waiting for someone and hence the name.
According to a Manipuri folklore, a legendary hero Kadeng Thangjahanba of Moirang once captured a gravid Sangai from Torbung Lamjao for a gift to his beloved Tonu Laijinglembi during a animal hunting expedition. However, as fate would have it, he found his beloved married to the king on his return. The heartbroken hero released the deer free in the wild of Keibul Lamjao. From that time onwards the place became the home of Sangai. 

In another folklore of Manipur, a prince called Pudangkoi of Luwang clan had, by the grace of a divine entity, transformed himself into a deer which has later on called Sangai. Further, there were references of Sangai head with crown of antlers, being decorated on the head of royal boat called Hiyang Hiren.
Identified as one of the rarest animal species in the entire world, the Sangai is the apple of the eye for the people. Talk of Manipur, and one of the first things to introduce the State is the Sangai, other than polo, its classical dance, sports and films.

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Species:R. eldii
Binomial name
Rucervus eldii eldii
(M'Clelland, 1842)

Thursday, November 28, 2013


The Palace of Kangla is an old palace at Imphal in Manipur (Kangleipak). It was situated on both sides (western and eastern) of the bank of the Imphal River. But now it remains only on the western side of the bank. Only the ruins remain now. Kangla means "dry land" in old Meetei. It was the traditional seat of the past Meetei rulers of Manipur.

The main entrance of the Kangla Fort in Imphal.


                                                    An artist's impression of the old Palace Gate or main gate of the fort.

'Kangla' was the ancient capital of Manipur from the ancient times down to the year 1891 AD. It is located at the heart of the Imphal city almost intersected by 24°N Latitude, 94°E Longitude and it is 2,619 feet (798 m) above mean sea level. It is situated on the western bank of the Imphal River.

In ancient times, 'Kangla' was the royal palace since the reign of Pakhangba who ascended the throne in 33 AD, according to "Cheitharol Kummaba", the royal Chronicle of Manipur.

In pre-Pakhangba period, a ruling clan named Khaba ruled from 'Kangla'. 'Kangla' is not only the seat of political power but also a holy place for religious worship and ceremonies. There are a number of ancient treaties/manuscripts especially "Sakoklamlen" "Chinglon Laihui", "Nunglon" etc., which lay down the rules for the construction, worship, ceremonies relating to 'Kangla'.these palace was surrounded by a huge channel called"kangla pat"

                                             Channel around a part of Kangla



    Loktak Lake, The largest freshwater (sweet) lake in northeast India, also called the only Floating lake in the world due to the floating phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matters at various stages of decomposition) on it, is located near Moirang in Manipur state, India. The etymology of Loktak is Lok = "stream" and tak = "the end". The Keibul Lamjao National Park, which is the last natural refuge of the endangered sangai or Manipur brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi), one of three subspecies of Eld's Deer, covering an area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi), is situated in the southeastern shores of this lake and is the largest of all the phumdis in the lake.

    This ancient lake plays an important role in the economy of Manipur. It serves as a source of water for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. The lake is also a source of livelihood for the rural fisherman who live in the surrounding areas and on phumdis, also known as “phumshongs”. Human activity has led to severe pressure on the lake ecosystem. 55 rural and urban hamlets around the lake have a population of about 100,000 people.

    A view of Sendra Tourist Home on a large Phumdi in Loktak Lake

    World Environment Day 2012 observed in the middle of Loktak Lake.

    Loktak Lake
    Loktak Lake1.jpg
    View of Loktak Lake and Phumdis
    Coordinates24°33′N 93°47′E
    TypeFresh water (lentic)
    Primary inflowsManipur river and many smallrivulets
    Primary outflowsThrough barrage for hydropower generation, irrigation, and water supply
    Catchment area980 km2 (380 sq mi)
    Basin countriesIndia
    Max. length35 km (22 mi)
    Max. width13 km (8 mi)
    Surface area287 km2 (111 sq mi)
    Average depth2.7 m (8.9 ft)
    Max. depth4.6 m (15.1 ft)
    Surface elevation768.5 m (2,521 ft)
    IslandsThanga, Ithing, Sendra islands. Also many floating islands called phumdis or phumshongs

    Tuesday, November 26, 2013



    Sur Bala Hijam
    BornSurjabala Hijam
    June 9, 1991 (age 22)
    Sagolband Salam Leikai, Imphal WestImphalManipurIndia
    Nationality India
    Other namesBala
    Years active2008–present

    Bala Hijam is a Manipuri film actress who has appeared in over 30 films. She is a native of Imphal, India. She was born as Surjabala Hijam to Hijam Biramangol and Hijam Suniti Devi.


    Bala made her film debut at age 17 in Oken Amakcham's Tellanga Mamei, a Manipuri film. She won the Special Jury Award 2011 from Film Academy Manipur (FAM). Bala will make her Bollywood debut in director Ravindra Surya Bashi's forthcoming film Zindagi on the Rocks. She debuted in Malayalam cinema with Sameer Thahir's Neelakasham Pachakadal Chuvanna Bhoomi

    Selected filmography

    2008Tellanga MameiManipuri film
    2009Khangdrae da NongdambaManipuri film
    2010Panthungee WangmadaManipuri film
    2011School KarusiManipuri film
    2012Manipur ExpressManipuri film
    2012Yaiskul Gee Pakhang AngaobaManipuri film
    2013Neelakasham Pachakadal Chuvanna BhoomiMalayalam Filim
    2013AssiManipuri film
    2013Zindagi on the RocksHindi film
    2013Tamoyai gi EbechaManipuri film
    2013Mounao ThoibiManipuri film
    2013LingjelManipuri film
    2014Tumba Chaba KhangdanaManipuri film
    2013Chow Chow Momo na Haobara Singju Bora na OinambraManipuri film